The magnitude and frequency of flash floods have increased in recent years, particularly in the Terai and Churia range, as a result of increasing trends in extreme rainfall events. Various studies conducted in the Churia range show that the bed levels of Churia originating rivers are rising by about 10-15 cm every year.  The river bed rise may cause the change of river course leading to the bank erosion and sedimentation in the fertile land. Many poor communities in the Terai are vulnerable due to the flash flood hazards because of their proximity to the hazards. The situation in the area is so severe that their awareness level is very low.

Among the flood prone districts in the country, the project is being implemented in the Mahottari, Siraha, Saptari and Udayapur districts. The project aims to increase the adaptive capacity of the vulnerable communities living in these four districts, especially in the eight VDCs of five river systems. Implementation of locally-appropriate structural measures including plantation is expected to work as sediment control measures for flood risk reduction. Various capacity building programs in different level and establishment of Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS) are expected to enhance the adaptive capacity of different stakeholders including vulnerable communities.